The Alphabill state tree is operated by a network of machines which is decomposed into partitions which operate subtrees of the overall state tree. Partitions share a common framework of the Unicity Certification, organized by the Root Chain.
Network representation of the state tree. (Verifiable Data Partition no longer in use as a separate partition, the functionality is now part of the User Token Partition.)
The Root Chain is a delegated proof of stake (DPoS) network that provides:
- Network orchestration providing randomness and timing references (liveness).
- Enforcement of transaction system rules in partitions.
- Enforcement of consensus (safety).
- Proofs of uniqueness (Unicity Certificates).
The Root Chain does not store transaction data or validate transactions.
Partitions are logical divisions of the state tree. Examples include the Governance Partition, Alphabill Native Currency Partition, Atomicity Partition, User Token Partition and Application Specific Partitions. Each partition implements a transaction system that complies with the Alphabill Transaction Framework.
Shards are sets of validators, all of which have the same validation rules used to process and store subledger blocks. All machines in all shards participate in a single consensus instance in coordination with validators on the Root Chain. The shards provide bulk transaction validators, state-keeping, ledger handling and smart contract execution.