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Core Papers

Alphabill Technical Overview

An easy introduction to the technology behind the Alphabill framework. It is optimized for explanatory clarity. For technical precision, see the Alphabill Yellowpaper.

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Alphabill Yellowpaper

A specification of data structures and protocols used in Alphabill.

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A Theory of Secure and Efficient Implementation of Electronic Money

This paper summarizes the study on how the choice of money scheme—accounts, bills, or UTXOs—influences the existence of secure and decomposable blockchain implementations of central bank digital currencies.

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A Unifying Theory of Electronic Money and Payment Systems

Bitcoin started with UTXOs and then Ethereum introduced accounts. There hasn't been an alternative and the community has lacked a mathematical formalism to understand the choices available and their implications. We spent several years understanding the architectural choices before selecting bills as transaction units. This paper is the result of that research.

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An Ultra-Scalable Blockchain Platform for Universal Asset Tokenization: Design and Implementation

This academic paper describes the theory and design of the Alphabill family of technologies that addresses both unlimited scalability and unrestricted adaptivity.

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A Universal Composition Theory of Blockchains

This paper provides the theory and general engineering guidelines for creating a composed blockchain infrastructure.

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